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UPSC Mains Geography Previous Year Questions

UPSC Mains Geography Previous Year Questions

Geography Topic Wise PYQs (2018-2023)


  1. Discuss the consequences of climate change on the food security in tropical countries. [2023/Q4/10m/150w]
  2. Why is the world today confronted with a crisis of availability of and access to freshwater resources? [2023/Q5/10m/150w]
  3. What are the forces that influence ocean currents? Describe their role in fishing industry of the world. [2022/Q14/15m/250w]
  4. Describing the distribution of rubber producing countries, indicate the major environmental issues faced by them. [2022/Q15/15m/250w]
  5. Mention the significance of straits and isthmus in international trade. [2022/Q16/15m/250w]
  6. Mention the global occurrence of volcanic eruptions in 2021 and their impact on regional environment. [2021/Q7/10m/150w]
  7. Briefly mention the alignment of major mountain ranges of the world and explain their impact on local weather conditions, with examples. [2021/Q14/15m/250w]
  8. How do the melting of the Arctic ice and glaciers of the Antarctic differently affect the weather patterns and human activities on the Earth? Explain. [2021/Q15/15m/250w]
  9. Discuss the multi-dimensional implications of uneven distribution of mineral oil in the world. [2021/Q16/15m/250w]
  10. The process of desertification does not have climate boundaries. Justify with examples.   [2020/Q5/10m/150w]
  11. Assess the impact of global warming on coral life system with examples.   [2019/Q4/10m/150w]
  12. Why is India taking keen interest in the Arctic region? [2018/Q5/10m/150w]
  13. What are the consequences of spreading of ‘Dead Zones’ on marine ecosystem? [2018/Q7/10m/150w]


  1. Why is the South-West Monsoon called ‘Purvajya’ (easterly) in Bhojpur Region? How has this directional seasonal wind system influenced the cultural ethos of the region? [2023/Q7/10m/150w]
  2. Comment on the resource potentials of the long coastline of India and highlight the status of natural hazard preparedness in these areas. [2023/Q14/15m/200w]
  3. Identify and discuss the factors for diversity of natural vegetation in India. Assess the significance of wildlife sanctuaries in rain forest regions of India. [2023/Q15/15m/200w]
  4. From being net food importer in 1960s, India has emerged as a net food exporter to the world. Provide reasons. [2023/Q17/15m/200w]
  5. Discuss the meaning of colour-coded weather warnings for cyclone prone areas given by India Meteorological Department. [2022/Q5/10m/150w]
  6. Discuss the natural resource potentials of ‘Deccan Trap’. [2022/Q6/10m/150w]
  7. Examine the potential of wind energy in India and explain the reasons for their limited spatial spread. [2022/Q7/10m/150w]
  8. Why is India considered as a sub-continent? Elaborate your answer. [2021/Q8/10m/150w]
  9. Despite India being one of the countries of the Gondwanaland, its mining industry contributes much less to its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in percentage. Discuss. [2021/Q5/10m/150w]
  10. Differentiate the causes of landslides in the Himalayan region and Western Ghats. [2021/Q4/10m/150w]
  11. How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far-reaching impact on the water resources of India?   [2020/Q6/10m/150w]
  12. Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples.   [2020/Q7/10m/150w]
  13. The interlinking of rivers can provide viable solutions to the multi-dimensional inter-related problems of droughts, floods and interrupted navigation. Critically examine.   [2020/Q14/15m/200w]
  14. India has immense potential of solar energy though there are regional variations in its developments. Elaborate.   [2020/Q16/15m/200w]
  15. Examine the status of forest resources of India and its resultant impact on climate change.   [2020/Q17/15m/200w]
  16. Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology.   [2019/Q5/10m/150w]
  17. Can the strategy of regional-resource based manufacturing help in promoting employment in India?   [2019/Q6/10m/150w]
  18. Discuss the factors for localization of agro-based food processing industries of North-West India.   [2019/Q7/10m/150w]
  19. What is water stress? How and why does it differ regionally in India?  [2019/Q14/15m/200w]
  20. How can the mountain ecosystem be restored from the negative impact of development initiatives and tourism?  [2019/Q15/15m/200w]
  21. Why is Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) needed? How does it help in navigation? (10 ) [2018/Q4/10m/150w]
  22. “The ideal solution of depleting ground water resources in India is water harvesting system.” How can it be made effective in urban areas? [2018/Q14/15m/200w]
  23. Defining blue revolution, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India. [2018/Q15/15m/200w]
  24. What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India? Identifying industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics. [2018/Q16/15m/200w]
  25. Mention core strategies for the transformation of aspirational districts in India and explain the nature of convergence, collaboration and competition for its success. [2018/Q17/15m/200w]


  1. How are the fiords formed? Why do they constitute some of the most picturesque areas of the world? [2023/Q6/10m/150w]
  2. Describe the characteristics and types of primary rocks. [2022/Q4/10m/150w]
  3. Troposphere is a very significant atmospheric layer that determines weather processes. How? [2022/Q17/15m/250w]
  4. Discuss the geophysical characteristics of Circum-Pacific Zone.   [2020/Q4/10m/150w]
  5. How do ocean currents and water masses differ in their impacts on marine life and the coastal environment? Give suitable examples?  [2019/Q17/15m/200w]
  6. Define mantle plume and explain its role in plate tectonics. [2018/Q6/10m/150w]
UPSC Prelims PYQ Book Image
UPSC Prelims PYQ Book
  • Collection of more than 3200 Previous Year Questions (1995-2023)
  • All questions divided into 10 Subjects
  • Subject further sub-divided into more than 75 topics
  • All answers according to official answer key
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