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Tribal and Peasant Revolts [Santhal Revolt, Indigo Rebellion & Others]

1. Tribal Uprisings

List of Tribal Movements Revolts Chuars 1768 and 1832 Pahariyas 1778-85 Bhils 181848 Hos 1820-32 Khond 1846-1914 1829-32 Kolis 1824-48 Singhpos 1830-39 Kols 1831-32 Koyas 1840-58, 1922-24 Santhals 1855-56 Naikdas 185M8 Area Manbhum Barabhum Raj mahal Singhbhum Meghalaya Syhyadari Gujarat Chhotanagpur Rampa Region Rajmahal Hills Panchmahal Gujarat Leaders Chuar Leaders Pahariya Sardars Sevaram Ho Leaders Chakra Bisayi Tint Singh & Koli Leaders Singhpo Leaders Buddho Bhagat Alluri Sitaram Raju Noma Dara Sidhu & Kanu Roop Singh Joria Bhagat Course & Consequence Defiance of authcities, suppressed by force Resentment against British encroachment, crushed British occupation, mediatary & concilliatory measures British occupation, military operations Forceful suppression of rebellious leaders Forceful implementation of a linking road, Tint captured Repeated revolts, all leaders were captured Against British encroachment, suppressed badly Against land revenue, killed outsiders, ruthlessly crushed Revenue policy & ban on forest products, Raju was killed Resentment against outsiders, money lenders, leaders killed Peace treaty (1859), later on Roop Singh and Joria killed
Naikdas 1858-68 Kherwar 1870-80 Bhuyan & Juang 1867-93 Kacha Nagas 1882 Mundas 1899-1900 Bhils raj 1913 Oraons Gandhian Panchmahal Gujarat Rajmahal Hills Orissa Chhotanagpur Banswara Chhotanagpur Roop Singh Joria Bhagat Bhagirath Ratna Nayak & Shami Dhar Sambhudan Birsa Munda Govind Guru Rajasthan Jatra Bhagat 1914-15 Peace treaty (1859), later on Roop Singh and Joria killed Religio - tribal resentment, Bhagirath died in Jail Suppressed by local zamindars & British Uncertain attacks on British, suppressed ruthlessly Forced-labour, outsiders Birsa Munda died in Jail Religio-political, attempts to set up Bhill failed Monotheistic movement , adopted styles
Chenchu 1921-22 Kukis 1917-19 Nallamale Hills Andhra Pradesh Hanumanth Rani Gaidiulliu Against forest regulation Against forced-labour, Gurilla warfare, suppressed

1.1 Causes of Tribal Rebellion

The colonial tribal policy brought large scale deforestation and saw forests as a source of economic produce.
Large scale deforestation completely disrupted tribal ways of living such as shifting agriculture, their dependence on forest for fuel, food, animal grazing etc.
Colonial policy restricted entry of tribals in forests by declaring them as reserved forests.
Coverted tribals into landless peasants.
They disrupted their community property holding system and granted ownership of land rights to Dikus or money lenders or zamindars brought from outside.
Colonial policy also disrupted age old practice of Animism.


Kols of Chotanagpur – 1820-1837.


1.2 Santhal Uprising

1855-56, started by Sidho and Kanhu. They promised satyug.
Rajmahal hills and Chotanagpur plateau regoin.
60,000 + individuals participated and 15,000 were killed.
As a result in Santhal Paraganas no outsiders were allowed to buy land.
Sido was killed in 1855, while Kanhu was captured in 1866.

1.3 Rampa Rebellion of 1879

Hill tribesmen in Rampa in Coastal Andhra – 1879.
Toddy Tapping (making wine from palmlike tree) was banned and taxed, which was part of tribe’s ritual hence the rebellion.

1.4 Munda Uprising

Chota Nagpur plateau region.
Birsa Munda led it. Armed gorilla struggle. He claimed to have vision of God and called to bring Satyayuga.
1899-1900 – led by Birsa Munda.
Aimed to assasinate unpopular British officials. Movement was called ULGULAN or revolution for justice and independence.
1907 – Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act (CNT Act). It disallowed selling land to outsiders i.e. no non tribal individual would be allowed to buy land in tribal areas.

1.5 Rampa Rebellion 1922

Led by Alluri Sitaram Raju in Godavari region.
Forest was encroached upon by British for commercial purposes including railway line

2. Peasant Rebellions

List of Peasant Movements Movements 1783 Moplah Indigo 1859 Pabna 1873-76 Deccan Riots 1875 Bijolia 1905-13 Champaran 1917 Kheda 1918 Awadh 1919-22 Eka 1920 Area Rangpur, Dinajpur Malabar coast Puna, Satara Ahmednagar Mewar Champaran Bihar Gujarat Pratapgarh , Rai Barelly Barabanki, Hardoi, Sitapur, Bahraich Leaders Dhiraj Narayan Digambar Viswas Vishnu Viswas Ishanchandra Rai Sambhu Pal Sitaram Dass Bhop Singh Mahatma Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi Jhinguri Singh Baba Ram Chandra Madari Passi Course & Consequence Against enhanced revenue, parallel govt. & attack on colonial symbols Land Revenue based on Janami system was resented, military operations Peaceful protest, ban on Indigo plantation in 1860 Legal protest against revenue enhancement Social buycot of Mahajans, Act of 1879 No Tax Movement, protest against Jagirdars Successful protest against Tinkathia system Against revenue collection after of crops Protest against illegal rent & land disposal Act, social buycot of Jagirdars Participation of small Zamindars, crushed

By Muslim peasants against Hindu Landlords

Moppila 1921 Bardoli 1928 Andhra 1923-38 Malabar 193440 Kisan Sabha 1929-39 Tebhaga 1946 Punnapra Vayalar 1946 Telengana 1946-51 Malabar coast Surat, Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Malabar coast Bihar Travancore Andhra Pradesh Yakub Hassan Gopal Menon Ballabh Bhai Patel N.G. Ranga R. Ram Chandra T. Prakasham Swami Sahajanand Krishna Vmod Rai Avani Lahiri Panam thanu Pillai Sandraiya Attack on police stations, govt. offices & zamindars, on communal line, crushed Against Hah system, decreased revenue rent Against enhanced revenue, farmers got Relief after Malabar Tenancy Act Land Tenancy Act Peaceful Movement centred on farming 800 rebel were killed for an independent Travancore state Gurilla warfare of farmers against Nizam & traders
  1. Sanyasi Rebellion (1760s to 1800s.)
  2. Indigo revolt (1859-60)
  3. Deccan Agrarian riots. (1875)
  4. Pabna agrarian rebellion. (1875)

2.1 Sanyasi Rebellion

Bengal and Bihar.
Religious monks, specifically of Bhakti and Sufi tradition played an important role in these riots by playing leadership role.
Turned violent.
In 1880s, ANANDMATH (Abey of Bliss) was written by Bankimchandra
Chatterjee.
Vande Mataram song is part of it.

2.2 Indigo Rebellion

One of the largest 19th century peasants movement in Bengal which drew large attention.
/ Indigo was cultivated even before Britishers came.
They largely used court route to stop ‘forced’ cultivation and approached judiciary and were also actively supported by educated middle class.
Educated middle class wrote articles like in Hindoo Patriot by Harish Chandra Mukherjee.
NEEL DARPAN written by Dinbandhu Mitro.
Its only aim was to stop forced cultivation of Indigo and decline in fertility of soil it caused with repeated cultivation.

Deccan Agrarian Riot 1875
Pune, Satara, Ahmednagar

2.3 Issue

Decline in international cotton prices, which negatively affected farmers’ incomes.
This was caused since USA resumed cotton production after civil war.
Proposed hike in revenue demand from British from the region.
Initially they tried peaceful means, but when Britishers were not yielding, soon movement turned violent.
It supressed but also introduced
Deccan Agrarian Relief Act 1876.


2.4 Stratchey Commission 1880s

To deal with famines.
It asked British Indian govt. to take active responsibility of dealing with famines.
Famine relief code must be established.
1 crore rupees for purpose of famine relief must be allocated.


2.5 McDonald Commission 1902

Under Lord Curzon
Need for British govt. to take more proactive steps for purpose of dealing with droughts and famines.


// Freezer Commission – wrt Police reforms

Under Lord Curzon in 1902.
Recommended intelligence agency. CID.

TribalPeasant
Largely violent or millitant in nature.Largely non violent in nature. Used legal constitutional means.
Aimed to overthrow the Diku or outsider.Aim of most peasant struggles was to obtain tax reliefs rather than overthrow of British.
They lacked any strong sense of nationalism and were localized in natureSame.
Often believed in charismatic abilities of their leaders.These struggles often received support from educated middle class.

UP Kisan Sabha (1919-20) played an important role in organizing Sabha in Awadh region.

Indra Narayan Shukla and Dvivedi
Other leaders Jhinguri Singh, Baba Ramchandra
J Nehru worked closely with UP Kisan Sabha.

2.6 Eka / Unity Movement

Madari Pasi led it.
Peasant rebellion in North.
Peasants took pledge not to pay rent to British till they decrease tax rates.

2.7 Mopilla Revolt (1920-21)

Kerala, During NCM, Led by Yakub Hasan and Gopal Menon
By Muslim peasants against Hindu landlords.
Landlords were collecting taxes above legal limits.
Initially Congress supported Mopilla revolt but as it turned violent, it took form of religious riot and Congress withdrew its support and ultimately crushed by British.

2.8 Bardoli Satyagraha 1928

In Gujarat, led by Vallabhai Patel.
Issue was Hali system (30% hike in tax rate collection in region) though productivity had not increased.
Patel organized peasants into a rent strike, saying that they will not pay taxes to the British, till British call off proposed hike.
British govt. yielded, appointed committee which recommended only 5% hike in taxes.
Patel was given title of Sardar by people of Bardoli.

2.9 All India Kisan Sabha (1936)

Established by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati and N D Ranga.
Pan Indian organization, which aimed to bring together all peasant groups in one umbrella and make joint demands.
They did put pressure even on Congress during 1937 elections, demanding that Congress must take concrete steps in provinces where its forming govt for welfare of peasants.

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