1. Tribal Uprisings
1.1 Causes of Tribal Rebellion
The colonial tribal policy brought large scale deforestation and saw forests as a source of economic produce.
Large scale deforestation completely disrupted tribal ways of living such as shifting agriculture, their dependence on forest for fuel, food, animal grazing etc.
Colonial policy restricted entry of tribals in forests by declaring them as reserved forests.
Coverted tribals into landless peasants.
They disrupted their community property holding system and granted ownership of land rights to Dikus or money lenders or zamindars brought from outside.
Colonial policy also disrupted age old practice of Animism.
Kols of Chotanagpur – 1820-1837.
1.2 Santhal Uprising
1855-56, started by Sidho and Kanhu. They promised satyug.
Rajmahal hills and Chotanagpur plateau regoin.
60,000 + individuals participated and 15,000 were killed.
As a result in Santhal Paraganas no outsiders were allowed to buy land.
Sido was killed in 1855, while Kanhu was captured in 1866.
1.3 Rampa Rebellion of 1879
Hill tribesmen in Rampa in Coastal Andhra – 1879.
Toddy Tapping (making wine from palmlike tree) was banned and taxed, which was part of tribe’s ritual hence the rebellion.
1.4 Munda Uprising
Chota Nagpur plateau region.
Birsa Munda led it. Armed gorilla struggle. He claimed to have vision of God and called to bring Satyayuga.
1899-1900 – led by Birsa Munda.
Aimed to assasinate unpopular British officials. Movement was called ULGULAN or revolution for justice and independence.
1907 – Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act (CNT Act). It disallowed selling land to outsiders i.e. no non tribal individual would be allowed to buy land in tribal areas.
1.5 Rampa Rebellion 1922
Led by Alluri Sitaram Raju in Godavari region.
Forest was encroached upon by British for commercial purposes including railway line
2. Peasant Rebellions
By Muslim peasants against Hindu Landlords
- Sanyasi Rebellion (1760s to 1800s.)
- Indigo revolt (1859-60)
- Deccan Agrarian riots. (1875)
- Pabna agrarian rebellion. (1875)
2.1 Sanyasi Rebellion
Bengal and Bihar.
Religious monks, specifically of Bhakti and Sufi tradition played an important role in these riots by playing leadership role.
In 1880s, ANANDMATH (Abey of Bliss) was written by Bankimchandra
Vande Mataram song is part of it.
2.2 Indigo Rebellion
One of the largest 19th century peasants movement in Bengal which drew large attention.
/ Indigo was cultivated even before Britishers came.
They largely used court route to stop ‘forced’ cultivation and approached judiciary and were also actively supported by educated middle class.
Educated middle class wrote articles like in Hindoo Patriot by Harish Chandra Mukherjee.
NEEL DARPAN written by Dinbandhu Mitro.
Its only aim was to stop forced cultivation of Indigo and decline in fertility of soil it caused with repeated cultivation.
Deccan Agrarian Riot 1875
Pune, Satara, Ahmednagar
Decline in international cotton prices, which negatively affected farmers’ incomes.
This was caused since USA resumed cotton production after civil war.
Proposed hike in revenue demand from British from the region.
Initially they tried peaceful means, but when Britishers were not yielding, soon movement turned violent.
It supressed but also introduced
Deccan Agrarian Relief Act 1876.
2.4 Stratchey Commission 1880s
To deal with famines.
It asked British Indian govt. to take active responsibility of dealing with famines.
Famine relief code must be established.
1 crore rupees for purpose of famine relief must be allocated.
2.5 McDonald Commission 1902
Under Lord Curzon
Need for British govt. to take more proactive steps for purpose of dealing with droughts and famines.
// Freezer Commission – wrt Police reforms
Under Lord Curzon in 1902.
Recommended intelligence agency. CID.
|Largely violent or millitant in nature.||Largely non violent in nature. Used legal constitutional means.|
|Aimed to overthrow the Diku or outsider.||Aim of most peasant struggles was to obtain tax reliefs rather than overthrow of British.|
|They lacked any strong sense of nationalism and were localized in nature||Same.|
|Often believed in charismatic abilities of their leaders.||These struggles often received support from educated middle class.|
UP Kisan Sabha (1919-20) played an important role in organizing Sabha in Awadh region.
Indra Narayan Shukla and Dvivedi
Other leaders Jhinguri Singh, Baba Ramchandra
J Nehru worked closely with UP Kisan Sabha.
2.6 Eka / Unity Movement
Madari Pasi led it.
Peasant rebellion in North.
Peasants took pledge not to pay rent to British till they decrease tax rates.
2.7 Mopilla Revolt (1920-21)
Kerala, During NCM, Led by Yakub Hasan and Gopal Menon
By Muslim peasants against Hindu landlords.
Landlords were collecting taxes above legal limits.
Initially Congress supported Mopilla revolt but as it turned violent, it took form of religious riot and Congress withdrew its support and ultimately crushed by British.
2.8 Bardoli Satyagraha 1928
In Gujarat, led by Vallabhai Patel.
Issue was Hali system (30% hike in tax rate collection in region) though productivity had not increased.
Patel organized peasants into a rent strike, saying that they will not pay taxes to the British, till British call off proposed hike.
British govt. yielded, appointed committee which recommended only 5% hike in taxes.
Patel was given title of Sardar by people of Bardoli.
2.9 All India Kisan Sabha (1936)
Established by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati and N D Ranga.
Pan Indian organization, which aimed to bring together all peasant groups in one umbrella and make joint demands.
They did put pressure even on Congress during 1937 elections, demanding that Congress must take concrete steps in provinces where its forming govt for welfare of peasants.