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Home Rule Movement and Lukhnow Pact [1914-1917]

1908 – Jinnah fought case for Tilak.
He was famous and high earnring lawyer.
Moderate in ideology.
He was modernist, Shia Muslim, was not devout folllower of Islam.
He was instrumental in Bringing Muslim League and INC together.

1. 1914

/ Tilak released, WW I Started.

Britain, France, Russia, USAVsGermany, Ottoman, Austro_Hungary

/1 mn+ Indian troops fought on behalf of British. ~ 75K died and same were injured.
/British built India Gate in Delhi in memorial of it.Tilak, after release soon began to take active steps to revive nationalist activity.
Tilak aimed to build bridges with the moderates (reunify Congress) and even offered an assurance to mend ways of dealing with British rule. He also combined with Annie Besant for the purpose.
Moderates were in favour of supporting India’s involvement in war so that after War there will be further devolution of power.
Tilak argued that war involves no Indian cause, but still India is participating and this loyalty must be rewarded with devolution of power after war by estalishing Self Rule (Home Rule).

2. 1916 Home Rule Movement

Annie Besant and Tilak started the Home Rule leagues.
WW I saw the involvement of more than 1 million Indian troops. While moderates offered support to British, given their loyalist position.
Tilak and Besant started the Home Rule Leagues and argued thatThe War which saw the involvement of large number of Indian troops had nothing to do with Indian interest.
Indians participated in the war, largely to secure British political interest.
They expected the British to repay Indian loyalty with a genuine devolution of power after the war.
Tilak was in charge of Bombay province and Besant in Madras and other areas including Bombay City.
The home rule league represented an attempt to revive the nationalist struggle almost a decade after 1907 split.
It made us of public speeches, plays, public libraries to build nationalist consciousness.
Two Home Rule Leagues were started in 1915-16, one under the leadership of Lokmanya Tilak, and the other under the leadership of Annie Besant, an English admirer of Indian culture and the Indian people, and S. Subramaniya Iyer.
/George Sydney Arundale was associated with organizing home rule league and was also president of Theosophical society from 1934-1945.

3. 1916 Lucknow Session and Lucknow Pact

1916 saw the Lucknow session which involved the moderates and extremists coming together to reunify the Congress and revive nationalist activities.
The Lucknow Pact  (aka Congress-League pact.) soon followed between Congress and Muslim League, also termed the Tilak – Jinnah pact. It represented an effort to broaden the base of the freedom struggle and involveThe congress recognizing Muslim League position on separate electorate.
Both demanded genuine devolution of power after WW I.
Both demanded that 1/3rd of seats must be reserved for Muslims in legislature.
While Lucknow Pact represented a positive attempt to widen the freedom struggle, its tacit recognition of Muslim League’s position on separate electorate was bound to have consequences for freedom struggle.
In 1917, The Khilafat question soon emerged on scene.
/ It should be noted that the initial stand of ML after its foundation in 1906 was loyalist one.
/ Jinnah was member of both Congress and ML.

4. 1917

British Proposed Montagu Chelmsford reforms (1917) against Home Rule movement and GOI 1919 was introduced.

5. 1913  Formation of Ghadar Party in USA, San Franscisco

Formed by Lala Hardayal, Sohan Singh Bakhna & Mohammad Barkatullah Khan.
Bhagwan Singh, Ram Chandra were some other leaders of party.
Hardayal was himself University Professor. They also took out Journals ‘Ghadar’ and ‘Revolutionary’. Weekly paper Ghadar carried the caption with masthead Angrezi Raj Ka Dushman….
Largely secular organization and stick primarily to economic and political issues.
The Ghadar party aimed to bring about an armed overthrow of British rule from India by initiating an armed mutiny within the Indian troops stationed in India and abroad (esp Punjab). They tried to capitalize on Komagata Maru incident (1914) which generated much discontent amongst the Sikh Soldiers. Ghadar party tried to capitalize on this incident by trying to invoke mutiny amongst Sikh troops. They contacted Rasbihari Bose for the purpose.
In 1915, despite the bold idea of Ghadar party, the implementation lacked behind and British were made aware of the conspiracy and responded with introduction of Defence of India Act 1915 under which all suspected individuals were hanged.
In 1915 Haradayal managed to escape from USA to Germany and became part of Zimmerman Plan (Plan of German foreign office to attempt initiating an armed mutiny within India) but it did not succeed.
Thus the Ghadar party idea, though charismatic or revolutionary, failed to produce an immediate impact while the Home Rule Leagues were less charismatic but more sustained response to involvement of Indians in WW I.
Ghadar party always talked about secularism.
It had secular ideology though mostly comprised of Sikhs.

6. 1914 Komgata Maru Incident

Almost all Indians occupying Komgata Maru ship were denied entry in Vancouver, Canada under new imigration rules (Continuous Passage Act – Journey to Canada must be completed in one go – a racial act), (Every immigrant should posses at least 200 Candian dollars). They were forced to return to India, where they were fired by Indian Imperial Police which resulted in death of 20 Sikhs. Passangers were expecting British to intervene since Canda was former British colony.
Ghadar activists tried to capitalize on this incidence to recruit members for Ghadar party.

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